Jan 20

Ubudlelwano phakhathi kuka Gandhi, uDube, uShembe ne Nanda Seminary

by in Umlando & Nesikukhumbulayo

Ubudlelwano phakathi kuka Gandhi, uDube, uShembe neNanda Seminary

Abaholi abathathu ababecishe belingane ngeminyaka: uShembe (1870-1935), uGandhi (1969-1948), uDube (1871-1949), ngaphandle kukaDube bonke baqhamuka ezindaweni ezahlukene kodwa bakhetha iNanda : uShembe wakhulela eHerrismith eDrakensberg, uGandhi yena wakhulela eNdiya, oLindley no Mary Edwards bona bakhulela eMpumalanga e-United State.

INanda Seminary yafakwa ngo 1869, Ohlange Institute ngo 1903, iPhoenix Settlement ngo 1904, Ekuphakameni ngo 1910

uDube no Shembe babehlangene ngobungani obude futhi uDube wabhalela uShembe ibhayographi  (uShembe 1936)

UJohn Dube wajabula kakhulu ukugubha usuku njengomholi wepolitiki, kodwa wayewumfundisi ngobuNkulunkulu obalulekile. Ngokuxhumana no Isaiah Shembe, uDube wathola okukhulu ukuqonda ngokwenhloso futhi nangobufundisi emasontweni  ezimele e- Afrika  i-African Independent Churches (AIC’s ). Eqinisweni uDube nguyena owaqamba i-African Independent Churches.

UDube wavumela Ushembe nesonto lakhe ukuthola abalandeli ngenxa yelanga okuyilona elaliloba ngobufundisi bobuNkulunkulu e-Africa ngoShembe masinyane ngo 1917. Iphe-phandaba njaonjalo lalishicilela impahla mayelana nokubaluleka kwemicimbi nemisebenzi yesonto likaShembe, futhi lalibika mayelana nemikhosi ngemilingo ephilisayo.

Bobabili uDube no Shembe bazama ukufana namaKrestu ngemithetho , inani namasiko ase-Afrika kodwa ngemiphumela ehlukile

Ugogo kaJohn Dube uDalida owokuqala owaphendula uDaniel Lindley eNatali. Wafunda eNanda Mission Seminary, kwakungenxa yokuthi uDube waziswa ngosizo lwamaKrestu nangokubaluleka kwemfundo efundumele futhi ngenxa yemfundiso yakhe uDube wathola umfundazwe e-USA.

Ubaba kaDube  uJames owayengungqongqoshe wokuqala eNanda Seminary, ukuphumelela kuka Rev Lindley ngo 1873. uJohn Dube naye nje wafunda khona eNanda Mission.

Abantu besifazane bokuqala abalandela uShembe kwakungabafundi base Nanda Seminary, badlala enkulu indima ekuqopheni umlando ngesonto lakwaShembe.

INanda Seminary kwakuwumthombo obalulekile wogqozi lo-Ohlange Institute futhi uDube wayenobudlelwano obude futhi nomdlandla ngeNanda Seminary, ngomzekelo, laphaya wanikeza ngokukhuluma, nokunye okuningi.

Ukuhlangana kwabantu kwakuhleleka phakathi kwabafana abasuka Ohlange Institute namantombazane aseNanda Seminary kusukela ngo 1930’s.

Iphephabhuku lesikole lahlanganywelwa lakhiqhizwa phakathi ko- Ohlange Institute kanye neNanda Seminaryngo 1930’s.

UDube noGandhi babezazi futhi bahloniphana. Abahlali Ohlange nasePhoenix  babexhumana njalo njalo.

IGandhi Indian Opinion kwakuwumthombo obalulekile ukufaka umfutho kwisisekelo sika Dube seLanga, okuyilona elalipghrintwa ePhoenix ekuqaleni.

Kunabanye osolwazi ababephika ngobudlelwano phakathi kukaGandhi noShembe (ne-Afrika nje ngokujwayelekile), uHeuser (2003) waqinisekisa ukuthi bobabili laba baholi babe ngazani kodwa babazi imfundiso yomunye ngomunye. Emasikweni onke ukuxhumani phakathi kaMandiya nama-Afrika ngenxa yokuba seduze nomakhelwane n gesikhathi esesakhohlwakala kulesi sikhathi samanje, kodwa kubaluleke kakhulu ukusukhumbula. Ison to likaShembe kwakuyilona kuphela i-AIC eNingizimu Afrika eyayivakashelwa futhi iheha namaNdiya njengamalunga, ama-Afrika wona wayeya njalo emihlanganweni yemithandazo ePhoenix. Kwakuyilokho okwenza bahlale ndawonye, babelane izipiliyoni, usizo nesihloko sokulwa nodlame sazalwa.

Umbono ngokulwa nodlame eqinisweni waqhuthswa uGandhi , Ushembe  kanye noDube. Ngesikhathi wayengakholelwa uDube ukuqonda uHulumeni ngemithetho mayelana nokuhlala. Umbiko ka Gandhi waqhuthswa uShembe.

UShembe wayenemicabango emide eyayingahambelani nepolitiki futhi nobuholi be Conifonisti, kodwa umbono kaGandhi ngabahlali wamthatha wamcabangisa kakhulu. Lokhu kwagcina ngo 1926, ngesikhathi uShembe ekhuthaza amalunga akhe ukuthi alwe. Lempi yabahlali ngabahlali yaphenduka indumezulu yokuzimela esontweni likaShembe ngaphezu komthetho wabashayi bomthetho.

Ngo 1928 umadala owayazi izibongo zika Isaiah Shembe wazishicilla ephepheni ilanga . liqukethe ubufakazi obucacayo nge Phoenix futhi nobufakazi obucashile  ngo Gandhi. UGandhi wayekhuselwa uShembe ngokubhekisisa nokugqamisa impiloelula nokuzimele .

Isikhathi eside uGandhi ebuyele eMandiyeni wagcina ngokutshela inqondo yakhe ngokuthuthuka kwenkolo eNingizimu Afrika. Imidanso ehlukene nemikhosi  kaShembe kwakungezinye zezinto ezincane ezazibalulekile emasikweni empilo yase-Afrika eyafakwa yi-Indian Opinions.

Ngesikhathi uShembe eshona ngo 1935, amaSatyagrahis amabili okuqala kaGandhi, uSechand Rangobin noSorabjee Rustomjee bakhuluma emngcwabeni kaShembe. URongobin eceleni owathola ukufunda kwakhe ePhoenix, kwakuwumngani othembekile futhi wayengumlandeli kaShembe.

Ngokulinganayo emva kokushona kukaGandhi ngo 1948, abakhulumeli besonto likaShembe babevakasha njalonjalo enkozweni yesikhumbuzo sikaGandhi futhi  ngaphansi kwemvumo kaManilal Gandhi ePhoenix, okuningi ukuvumelana kwakuphakathi kwe Phoenix kanye ne- Ekuphakameni.

Ukuthola kukaGandhi iNatal  Indian Congress, kwakhuthaza uDube ukuba anikele esisekelweni se- African National Native Congress, umsunguli we ANC.

Kusukela phakathi kwamakhulunyaka anga-20, iNanda Seminary ne-Ohlange Institute kwakuwumthombo obalulekile ukukhuthaza iKasturba isikole sika Gandhi ePhoenix.

Kusukela esikhathini sakamuva u-Amos Shembe wafundisa isikhashana Ohlange Istitute.

Ubudlelwano phakathi kwezindawo ezehlukene zazicatshangwa ngezipiliyoni kanye nama bhiyographi abaholi emiphakathini yase Ningizimu Afrika. Isibonelo isekela likaMongameli lokuqala, uPhumzile Mlambo Ngcuka owayengumfundi eNanda Seminary futhi kamuva nje waba nguthisa Ohlange Institute.

Kwatholwa uSabine Marschall ngoMandulo 2009

 

Main source:

Heuser, Andreas. 2003. Shembe, Gandhi und die Soldaten Gottes. Wurzeln der Gewaltfreiheit in Sűdafrika. Waxmann: Műnster/ New York, Műnchen/ Berlin.

Other sources:

Dhupelia-Mestrie, Uma. 2004. Gandhi’s Prisoner? The Life of Gandhi’s Son Manilal. Cape Town: Kwela Books.

Hughes, Heather. 1990. ‘A lighthouse for African womanhood’: Inanda Seminary, 1869-1945”. In: Women and Gender in Southern Africa to 1945. Edited by Cheryl Walker. David Philip and James Curry: Cape Town and London, pp.197-220

Marable, Manning. 1976. African Nationalist: The Life of John Langalibalele Dube. PhD dissertation, University of Maryland.

Papini, Robert. 1992. Rise Up and Dance and Praise God. Holy Church of Nazareth Baptists. 1992. Education Pamphlet to accompany a temporary exhibition at the Local History Museum. Produced by the Local History Museum, Durban.

Tichmann, Paul. 1998. Gandhi sites in Durban. The Local History Museums: Durban.

 

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