Jul 10

Zulu traditional wedding – umabo

by in Community, Culture & Heritage

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The father-in-law is on the left, the bride is on the right and the bridesmaids are behind her, holding grass mats

Umabo can be best described as a Zulu traditional wedding which usually takes place after the white wedding. It may happen that some people only do the white wedding and have umabo many years after being married but it is believed that one is not fully married in accordance to the Zulu culture if they did go through umabo. Some people may be faced with difficulties in their marriages (failure to conceive, may not have good relations with the in-laws) and it may be discovered that the ancestors are not happy as umabo was not done and they don’t recognise their daughter in-law. This is a very important tradition; it may also impact on the children, which is why some people have umabo even after the death of the husband. The children may also need to do umabo for their parents; they are not to have umabo for themselves if their parents did not have umabo.

In the Zulu culture, there are a couple of rituals that are done, before one is fully married and I would say umabo is the final stage. The first step is lobola, it is a process, one is not expected to pay all the lobola in one day, then izibizo (bringing of gifts for the bride’s mother and close family) may follow, umbondo ( the bride brings groceries for the groom’s family) may follow      and then the wedding / umabo. Before the wedding, even if there will only be a white wedding, the bride’s family should slaughter a goat for her and burn insence (impepho); to tell the ancestors that their daughter is going to be a member of another family and after the wedding, the groom’s family should welcome her with a goat. For umabo, the two families slaughter cows (one from each family) and exchange certain parts of the meat.

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The father-in-law says the opening words

Umabo always takes place at the groom’s family residence, the bride brings with her, some furniture and gifts for her new family. She is to wear traditional clothes, isidwaba (skirt made from cow skin for married women), isicholo (to cover the head, it is for married women) and she needs to cover her shoulders. The bride is to sit on the grass mat and is not to look at or talk to anyone, as a sign of respect. Her father-in-law is to welcome her, before the ceremony starts, her father should also says a few words, indicating that he does approve. The bride is to sit on the grass mat, her bridesmaids and sisters are to bring the gifts and furniture. She brings a Kist, a bed with pillows and linen and brings grass mats, pillows and blankets for her in-laws (the grooms family sends a list for when the day of umabo comes, the brides knows who to give blankets to). Everybody (on the list provided) are given grass mats, pillows and blankets but the men are given beer pots with imbengo (grass lid for beer pot) on top of that. She also brings brooms.

 

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The bride sits on the grass mat

The names of the people on the list are called out, one by one; they start with the females (the older women and then the groom’s sisters). They then call out the men; they are given blankets, grass mats, pillows and the beer pots. When an individual is called out, they are expected to lie/ lay on the grass mat, a family member from the bride’s side covers them with their blanket and they then get up, sing and do the Zulu dance in appreciation of the gifts. After everyone has done that, the groom goes last. The bride than gets up, takes the bed and puts on the linen, she then goes around and looks for the groom. When she finds him, she must place grass mats for him to walk on, which lead to the bed, which is well prepared for him to lie on.  He first sits on the bed and the bride takes a basin with a towel and soap and acts as if she is washing his feet. She then opens the bed covers, he lies on it and the bridesmaids, the bride’s sisters or other young ladies from the bride’s side (only a few of them) hit him with small sticks, he gets up and runs away. It has not been well explained why that is done.

 

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The stuff the bride brings

 

Umabo is a very important ritual; it brings together families, in the process the bride is also told what is expected of her, from her family and her in-laws. This tradition is the way that ancestors recognise the bride; it is believed that they bring good luck. It is also a beautiful tradition where people showcase their traditional attire, sing and dance. It brings together different elements of the Zulu culture.

Written by: Ayanda Siphesihle Ngcobo

July 2013

 

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The blankets

 

 

 

 

 

 

This post is also available in: Zulu

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58 Responses to “Zulu traditional wedding – umabo”

  1. From Ntombifuthi Zwane:

    thank you for the good explanation but who are the people that should receive umabo as sometimes there are complaints that a unnecessarily long list has been given by the groom’s family and that ca cause contension between the families.

    Posted on November 29, 2013 at 10:38 am #
  2. From BonS:

    Mine was a disaster, we got stuck on umabo. My inlaws gave us a list of 65 people and 15 of them were suppose to get furniture. The worst part of it is that they choose a furniture they want. 5 of the 15 were ogogo who who passed on, they say you wake them up with an expensive furniture. The other 2 from 15 is for the step mothers to the husband as they as they are still part of the family. So all 3 mothers of the husband you buy a full bedroom suit for each. The washing machines should be LG only.

    This made my ex hubby angry with his family, this caused a huge fight and division between 2 families, i guess we all were affected somehow. As a result our marriage collapsed.

    I honestly as a born again Christian dont believe in all this non-sense.

    Posted on December 18, 2013 at 9:54 am #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Hi BonS

      I have never heard of anything like that, that was not cultural, that was people being hard on you and using culture as an excuse. That is not how things are done.

      Posted on February 10, 2014 at 7:56 am #
    • From nokukhanya:

      That was wrong nje its not tradition @ all.

      Posted on April 16, 2014 at 7:46 am #
    • From Nobelungu:

      No darling they were extremely wrong to do that. for umabo the grooms family does not list even one thing that they want, even the mother does not list items, it is just a list with names only. hm, that is terrible what happened to you, and am sorry to hear you went through such. I am about to do this ceremony next year and from the grooms side i just got a list of names and what they are as in aunts etc. I know the key role players who i myself will go an extra mile for but nje ai ukubiza, its not izibizo / membeso.

      Posted on December 2, 2014 at 10:14 am #
    • From NONTUTHUKO:

      I’m sorry to hear about your marriage BonS, I think this whole thing is unfair, but hey it’s tradition. I still think umabo and umembeso should be blankets, reed mats, and maybe pinafores. Once again, I’m sorry about what happened. Be strong dear…..

      Posted on September 1, 2015 at 9:41 am #
    • From lihle:

      they were playing with you basile

      Posted on November 24, 2015 at 1:17 pm #
    • From Mbali:

      they didnt want you darling. bebengafuni nje ukusho ukuthi awuthandwa, babezama ukukuxosha am sure they were happy when umshado wenu collapsed.

      Kaze ubunja yini kangak

      Posted on January 5, 2017 at 2:54 pm #
  3. From mzamo dlamini:

    Just want to find out which traditional wedding (umabo)should one celebrate if one is caught up between two cultures. meaning that if one was raised up in Zulu culture and traditions for reasons that can not be mentioned but he is of Xhosa clan by birth.

    Posted on December 29, 2013 at 10:13 pm #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Xhosa

      Posted on February 10, 2014 at 8:07 am #
  4. From KK:

    Hi all

    BonS i mean why would people want to do that?i think ppl nid to realise that when they do such foolish things its not you as the bride who suffer but its the both of you.

    Im getting married into a Zulu family and the 1 thing my family was worried about Umabo.Im tswana and in our culture go apesa is just 2 blankets bride,her mother and a coat,knife,axe and nduku for the father and uncle to share.so we simply requested my hubbys family to also thread carefully with thier list as it will raise the lobola.I sat down with my hubby and he spoke to his family and they also agreed on 3 blankets.

    As a couple this has financial implications on you so its upto to yourselves to put your foot down to your own families.Same applies to when lobola is negotiated the brides family should not go insane and as the bride i think in modern times we must speak to our parents on what they charge since you know you and your hubbys financial well being.

    I dont agree with the issue that the brides parents must be compensated for raising thier child so they must charge a lot.It was their responsibility to raise that child as best they could.Thank God my parents are fair and understanding and same applies to my in laws.i just hope they will be no drama in the future…

    cheers to all future brides!!

    Posted on January 14, 2014 at 7:24 am #
  5. From Candice Cooper:

    Thank you so much for the informative article – My sister is having her Umabo on saturday at the grooms parents house and at least now I am better informed :) I am grateful that all the families involved in this wedding all get along and his parents love my sister already as a daughter and have placed no unnecesary burdens on them :) i am very proud to be taking part in this traditional aspect and feel blessed as a white english person to be involved in something so important :)

    Posted on March 4, 2014 at 9:15 am #
  6. From Bongani:

    Thank you so much for valuable information, it has helped me a great deal. I am planning my traditional wedding nd my dad is clueles when it xomes to traditions and cultures

    Posted on March 8, 2014 at 5:08 pm #
  7. From Phumzile Makhoba:

    Thank you so much for a valuable information my hubby and I are preparing for a umabo ceremony I’m Zulu his endebele the thinkg Is I grew up in my mothers side after my dad past on and I’m not fully clued up with a Zulu traditional ways. So my question is who are the most important people who gets on the umabo list and how many people must be chooses by law. Thank u hope to hear from u soon thanks.

    Posted on March 15, 2014 at 6:27 pm #
  8. From Lee:

    Am a Tswana woman n I’m getting married ka June to a Zulu Handsome Man. Now it’s clear of what is to be expected since its a traditional wedding. Thank for clarifying things

    Posted on March 31, 2014 at 10:24 pm #
  9. From Vee:

    Hello. This has been very informative. My niece is xhosa and she is marrying a Zulu guy. I’m also concerned abt the list of people who get gifts. Abakhongi have requested a date for amalobolo and they have informed us of the first payment they are bringing, now here is my Q. What if we charge them less and they come to us with a long list of expensive things and we are unable to cover that with what they have given us. Should we then dig from our own pockets or request more or what?

    Posted on May 18, 2014 at 8:43 pm #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Hi Vee

      That is a tough one, they do not usually request for much but the number of blankets can be large.

      Posted on May 22, 2014 at 2:47 pm #
  10. From Princess:

    I have been reading the above and I would honestly say that what did was a day light robbery how can you buy furniture for in-laws,

    Posted on May 20, 2014 at 11:41 am #
  11. From nonhle:

    I was once married in court there was no ceremony done in either on the 2 families beside the celebration party with our friend then we got devorce later now I’m with another man he is also a devorsee so are still allowed to do white wedding?

    Posted on May 21, 2014 at 3:15 pm #
  12. From Ayanda Ngcobo:

    Hi Princess

    That is how umabo has always been, you buy gifts for the in-laws and the furniture actually goes into your house (the house you share with your husband).

    Posted on May 22, 2014 at 2:37 pm #
  13. From Ayanda Ngcobo:

    And the furniture is just the bedroom suite (Kist and bed) and some may buy the whole bedroom suite.

    Posted on May 22, 2014 at 2:49 pm #
  14. From Ak:

    hi Ayanda

    i am a Xhosa girl getting married to a Zulu Guy so how do we incorparate Xhosa & Zulu tradition for the traditional Wedding?

    Posted on June 9, 2014 at 11:40 am #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Hi AK

      I don’t think that would be very difficult since Xhosa is very close to Zulu, both your families need to sit down and discuss the traditional wedding. I think it will be very interestingg

      Posted on June 18, 2014 at 2:21 pm #
  15. From Eddie:

    when one is marrying within a Zulu family, does a stepfather receive the lobola money even if he raised the woman. Also can the woman’s family charge lobola for a widow or the lobola is meant to be received by the deceased husband’s family

    Posted on July 10, 2014 at 1:10 pm #
  16. From Mbusoh:

    After A Failed Marriage And The Bride Choose To Remarry What Happens To The Kist? Does She Take That Kist Back Home Or She Leave The Kist By Inlaws?

    Posted on July 12, 2014 at 5:07 pm #
    • From Nobelungu:

      Well according to Zulu culture you do not divorce, as they have slaughtered and told ancestors that you are leaving you really are never ever to come back, you no longer belong there, even upon the death of your husband you remain in that family, you now identify with them and their ancestors. the Kist is a symbol of your coffin, and your family is taking you out as if you were “dead” to them (very harsh symbolism yes) so if your marriage fails and you leave your inlaws you become a family-less person so to say. you can not take it back to your pre-marital home, any further discussions about you are now to be done with the family you had previously married into.

      Posted on December 2, 2014 at 10:20 am #
  17. From james:

    I was told that when a Zulu woman or girl marries and is under 21 she can’t have children until she is 21 and they cannot have sex until she is 21

    Posted on September 12, 2014 at 6:13 pm #
    • From Nobelungu:

      That is false. Zulu tradition has never ever used age or the age 21 as a reference for anything, ceremonies are done on the stages of life, i.e umhlonyana when a girl first gets a period, marriage proceedings etc. Zulu does not confirm to the age 21, it is just a modern adaptation.

      Posted on December 2, 2014 at 10:22 am #
  18. From Nozipho:

    Thank you so much Ayanda for this valuable information. My fiance and I want to have a zulu wedding. We both don`t want a white wedding. We are being told by some family and friends that if we dont have a white wedding it will affect us when we are older. We are told that the bride needs to enter her groom`s family residence in a white dress. That is how she will be accepted by the ancestors. We totally disagree with that statement. Your articles has made it clear that umabo is the important part of the zulu wedding. Thank you again, now we can have a clear view on how to plan our wedding.

    Posted on December 11, 2014 at 2:42 pm #
  19. From Zama:

    Thanks a lot sisi for the article,
    Am to have umemulo and white wedding in December, Umabo will follow in 2016.I have clear view of what is expected of me.

    Posted on January 20, 2015 at 6:30 am #
  20. From Nozi:

    Hi

    Thanks a lot for your article. We had a white wedding in 2011 and we planning to have our umabo this year. My concern is we are both Christians and my hubby’s parents passed away and they were Christians as well and his uncle doesn’t want to listen to him when he tells him that angeke ngikwazi ukubavusa abangasekho as well as ukuthi angeke ngithelwe ngenyongo. any advise on how to handle this matter.

    Posted on January 21, 2015 at 2:47 pm #
  21. From Nosi:

    Hi Ayanda. Thank u for your interesting article. I am a xhosa woman engaged to a zulu guy and we are from different provinces. Now my understanding is that the white wedding is hosted by the brides side at her home and the traditional at the grooms, will I have to arrive there in my white dress all the way from my province and change at he’s home, or can I cum already dressed?

    Posted on July 21, 2015 at 7:35 am #
  22. From Shirley Wilson:

    Hi there. Is there a ‘blessing’ that is spoken at a Zulu wedding? I am researching Zulu traditional weddings for a story. Would be very grateful if you could give me a Zulu blessing (with English translation). Your article is so interesting. thank you!

    Posted on October 18, 2015 at 5:05 pm #
  23. From Tshei:

    I am a Tswana lady marrying into a Zulu family. I did get a list for umabo but was also told that the most important people on the list are, mother and father of the groom, and both maternal and paternal grand parents, also the aunt, the person who delivered amalobolo and the last born from the grooms family.

    The only issue is if the groom has like 6 aunts and funny stuff like that.

    Posted on November 16, 2015 at 11:10 am #
  24. From Zama:

    Hi There

    Am getting married on the 6th of December (white wedding) the following day am going to My husbands house, do i go there in my white dress? or do i wear traditional attire.

    Posted on November 18, 2015 at 11:49 am #
  25. From Unako:

    Good day

    I am going to be getting married soon and we have decided to do all the traditional ceremonies first and the white wedding will be the last. We are clueless when it comes to traditional things therefore your input will be greatly appreciated. We don’t even know what to start with or how to start preparing for the events.

    Please help.

    Posted on March 17, 2016 at 1:14 pm #
  26. From Zama:

    Hi Sisi

    I had a white wedding last year December, My wedding happened on a Sunday, so on Saturday afternoon, they slaughtered a goat to tell my ancestors that i will be leaving the next day to my new home, ngathelwa ngenyongo ngafaka isiphandla, In the morning when i left home in a white dress isiphandla nenyongo kwasala ekhaya, here is my 1st question) was that correct? 2nd) I now live with my husband in a home we build together with our children, should we have enough money for umabo, Will i have to go back home for another goat to be slaughtered for me? Or i leave straight from my house to my in-laws eNdwedwe with the gifts for umabo, and they do their part? Am very confused here, I was meant to have to gone to my in-laws the day after the wedding, to be welcomed by them by slaughtering a goat for me.That didn’t happen because of the weather, and the houses in farm were destroyed so they are busy fixing them.Do i continue and go there for the welcoming or I just wait until my husband and i are ready to do umabo?Please sisi i really need help am confused, and worried that anginamadlozi angibhekile beacuse ngakhisha ekhaya kwathiwa ngiyahamba and no one has welcomed me to their ones (my husbands)

    Posted on March 22, 2016 at 8:32 am #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Hi Zama

      Izinto azihambanga ngendlela, ngibona ukuthi fanele ubuyele kini ngiba isiphandla nenyongo kwakungafanele ukushiye.
      Mhlampe kungadingeka uqale uxolise kwabakini ngenkunku usho futhi ukuthi usukulungele ukukhishwa ngendlela bese beqala phansi bakukhiphe ngembuzi.
      From kini, go straight eNdwedwe bakwamukele ngembuzi nenyongo. Umkhwenyana wakho bese eyabika ukuthi nihlala kephi.
      Then bese uyaba.

      Posted on August 5, 2016 at 8:41 am #
      • From Zama:

        Hi Ayanda,

        Ngiyabonga kakhulu ngempendulo yakho.
        So manje silungisela ukuthi ngamukelwe emzini nomabo.
        Mele ngibuyele ekhaya bahlabe imbuzi bangikhiphe, ngihambe nesphandla nenyongo yakhona?
        mengifika emzini kwenziwa njani lokhu engifika nakho?
        Ngixolise ngokubuza kaningi. Ekhaya abazi lutho kanti nabantu abadala abekho,Bayasaba nokubuza kwabasemzini.

        Posted on August 15, 2016 at 1:16 pm #
  27. From Neliswa:

    Hi every one is a problem if I don’t do umbondo we ar agreed with my hubby to be about that heat iam prepared to do is umabo ples help.thanks

    Posted on April 9, 2016 at 3:39 am #
    • From Fisani:

      I dont think there is a problem Nelisiwe,even myself wont be doing umbondo since my husband is from gauteng and Im from kzn. Ill be doing umabo on the wedding day dear no problem just relax

      Posted on September 12, 2016 at 5:25 am #
  28. From Sompisi:

    Who are people that they must be on a list to receive the gifts of UMABO

    Posted on April 11, 2016 at 9:41 am #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Sompisi

      Family, if you are to recieve gifts you will decide as a family. However, parents, parents’ siblings, your siblings and grandparents are not to be left out.

      If you are to bring gifts than the other family will send you a list and you are to buy for all the people they have listed.

      Posted on August 5, 2016 at 8:28 am #
  29. From pat:

    Hi,

    i am an english and i am marrying a young beautiful Zulu girl. Do i still need to do umabo or is a white wedding perfect? i would also like to know since the girl is marrying into my family, does the process change a little? We do not pay lobola in our family when we marry though i do not mind if it means i have to, because i would like to respect her tradition and would like to know what will be done in my case as the groom.

    Posted on May 11, 2016 at 10:41 am #
    • From Neliswa:

      Dear Pat, you say it yourself you would like to respect her tradition, Umabo is part of her tradition so yes you have to do it. remember you will pay for ilobolo and umembeso (this is when your family gives brides family gifts in a form of blankets and the likes). after this she will bring umbondo (this is the gift from your bride to be’s family to say thank you for the lobolo and membeso)and on the wedding day she will also bring umabo (these are gifts in the form of blankets and the likes). hope this helps a bit

      Posted on July 6, 2016 at 12:20 pm #
  30. From Thuli:

    Hi All, as a wife what do I buy for my inlaws?Please help

    Posted on June 14, 2016 at 12:05 pm #
    • From Ayanda Ngcobo:

      Hi Thuli

      Your inlaws are to give you a list.

      Usually that list consists of things like blankets, grassmats, ukhamba, ivovo,pillows, bed with bedding and kist

      Posted on August 5, 2016 at 8:24 am #
  31. From Leanne Richards:

    We have been asked to quote on a 8 hours shoot for the above (excluding the Wedding in White) with 100 people. What is the norm for these kind of photoshoots? We have over 29 years of experience and have done labola’s etc but not to this extent. Our client in question is saying it is worth R1800? Please help

    Posted on August 18, 2016 at 5:20 am #
    • From Zama:

      I am having my Umabo (Traditional wedding) next year, I will use same photographer who captured my white wedding. I am not expecting to pay less than R25 000.00, Main reason being the venue, my photographer is from Kloof and Umabo is at Ndwendwe.I think those people are ripping you off.

      Posted on September 5, 2016 at 1:51 pm #
  32. From Sihle:

    Hi Ayanda,

    Thank you for the fruitful information, please can you advise what is it that i can buy my In-laws for Izibizo. I received a list with only the names.

    Both families understand that we still have a future to build,I’m very traditional but i have noticed that people are buying modern things these days.

    My In-laws are not Traditional at all, would it be disrespectful sending them e.g. grass mats when i know they will not use it at all ?

    What is the alternative in this case ?

    Posted on October 4, 2016 at 9:01 am #
  33. From Nomfundo:

    Hi all

    I am a Zulu woman and will be getting married to an American white man. He paid lobola already and he now needs to bring umembheso. My challenge is, he’s the only child and his parents both passed on. He doesn’t have any family here in South Africa. So how will I conduct umabo and all those other things mentioned above?

    Posted on October 12, 2016 at 12:24 pm #
  34. From Tess:

    Hi

    I’m getting married to a zulu guy and I’m colored… However his got kids of his own and I have 2 of my own so his family wants to take 1 cow for each child but my father disagrees because my dad says my future hubby will not be raising my kids as they stay with thier dad and my future hubby will not support them in anyway what so ever… how do we go about solving this matter??? please help

    Posted on November 14, 2016 at 2:29 pm #
    • From Sihle:

      Hi Tess,

      I am not an expert but this is the information that i know from my side.

      When my partner got pregnant i had to pay damages which is basically a cow in my tradition. We have to keep in made that people do things differently.

      When i paid lobola my in-laws started from 10 cows instead of 11 meaning that your in-laws could be correct about what they saying.

      My only fear for you is that the lobola part can get very messy very quickly.
      My advise would to sit down with your partner and ensure what you both get what you want.
      Do not let the lobola become a dark cloud above your heads.

      I also what to highlight the part where you said he will not be part of your kids or support them in any way, well i think that might change in the future. What is yours is really his once you are married, anyway i would maybe recommend that your hubby can still pay 11 cows but pay less for the 2 since you have the kids already.

      Happy marriage, once again i am not a professional this is my personal input with no reference.

      enjoy.

      Posted on November 18, 2016 at 7:58 am #
      • From Tess:

        Hi Sihle

        Thank you so much, I still need to learn alot when it comes to his culture.

        I have another question thou, Can you over see somethings and not do them in your culture?? when it comes to introducing and welcoming me in to the family

        Posted on November 25, 2016 at 9:41 am #
        • From Sihle:

          Doing lobola is part of tradition, do guys do traditional events ?
          I am just trying to understand why is he paying lobola.

          Will you guys be able to do all the traditional things needed from his side ?

          Posted on December 12, 2016 at 11:49 am #
          • From Tess:

            Hi Sihle

            We don’t do cultural events… I don’t really want the lobola thing but he wants to pay and his elders says its their culture.
            He wants to do the hole 9 yards and I don’t really agree with that, especially when they have to slaughter and pour blood on my head *not sure if its only drops or a hole lot … OMW I don’t know how I will stand all that!

            Posted on January 10, 2017 at 11:25 am #
  35. From Mphikeleli:

    Hi all,

    In Feb this year I paid half the lobola and when my uncles came back they were told that on the day of the wedding I must buy a cow of which will be isiShebo. Apparently in their culture of which is Tswana, uMkhwenyana buys isiShebo the cow for the wedding day.

    The lady whom I am about to marry she wants to have a white wedding on Saturday (in a chapel) and Sunday a traditional wedding Umabo at my family’s house.

    How can this be done whereby ;-
    1. We can see when the cow I bought is brought down and have experience on the way they treat guests.
    2. Not only the people I have send to negotiate lobola knows exactly where my future wife comes from.

    Please can someone who has done it this way or have a clue how to pull this one off, even suggestions

    When I consulted with my family before the lobola, this is the plan I was advise to take.

    1. Pay lobola not full
    2. Go back to pay the remainder of the lobola and exchange list for Umembeso
    3. Me and her decide the date when we want the Umabo to take place.
    4. Saturday the ceremony takes place at her families place and end on Sunday at my families place.
    5. If we want white wedding, we can do it on a later stage whereby the is no Umabo and all the staff.

    Your help will be highly appreciated. Next year we attending wedding expo’s. woow I never thought this day shall come.

    Posted on December 20, 2016 at 7:33 pm #
  36. From Kedi:

    We have decided to have a traditional wedding.Can anyone advice how do we conduct it step by step. My fiance is a zulu man but was raised in sesotho and now he really wants to do this in Zulu culture.We are not really doing white wedding but we need to put on wedding bands,how do we fit in the blessing of the rings into the the traditional ceremony or we need to do it separately arranging with the Pastor.

    Thank you
    Kedi

    Posted on January 10, 2017 at 1:27 pm #

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